Health

Worldwide, around 870 million people are undernourished, lacking essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A. Although not always facing acute hunger, the health of these people is seriously affected. At the same time, the number of overweight or obese adults has considerably exceeded the number suffering from hunger. Being overweight is a major cause of chronic diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, strokes and cancer. Together, undernutrition, obesity and malnutrition are responsible for almost all preventable diseases and health problems. Their common cause is the separation and disconnection of food production from consumption. It is essential to re-establish these links at all levels in order to bring food providers and consumers closer together. >>more

The World Map of Over-nutrition

Worldwide, 1.4 billion people are overweight; approximately one third of them are obese. Over the past decades, this "global epidemic", as termed by the WHO, has been spreading rapidly, not only in industrialised nations but also increasingly in transition economies and developing countries.
The IAASTD shows that agriculture and nutrition form the most important basis for human health. They are also a major cause of disease, in both rich and poor countries. Healthy diets, safe methods of food production and sustainable agriculture could prevent millions of people from suffering, as well as premature death. These are also decisive factors for economic upturn in developing countries and a key way to reduce escalating costs in the healthcare systems of industrialised countries.

Facts & Figures

According to the latest WHO estimates, 1.4 billion people aged 20 or above were overweight in 2008. Of this number, more than 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were obese. In 2012, 44 million (6.7%) of children under the age of five were overweight or obese, up from 4,7% in 1990.

Our food systems are making people sick. One in seven people globally are undernourished, with many more suffering from micro-nutrient deficiency. Meanwhile, 1.3 billion are overweight or obese. The UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food has made a series of recommendations including: taxing unhealthy products, regulating foods high in saturated fats, salt and sugar, cracking down on junk food advertising, overhauling agricultural subsidies that make certain ingredients cheaper, and supporting local food production so that consumers have access to healthy, fresh and nutritious foods.

OECD projections suggest that more than two out of three people will be overweight or obese in some OECD countries by 2020. More than half of the population of OECD countries is currently overweight or obese. In Korea and Japan, around 4% were obese in 2010, whilst in the United States the figure had reached 36%, followed by Mexico with 30%.

According to the WHO, an estimated 250 million pre-school children are suffering from vitamin A deficiency. It is likely that in vitamin A deficient areas a large proportion of pregnant women are affected.  An estimated 250,000 to 500,000 vitamin A-deficient children become blind every year, half of them dying within 12 months of losing their sight.

Zoonoses are diseases transmitted between animals and humans. Around 60% of all human diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic. 56 zoonoses together are responsible for an estimated 2.7 million human deaths and 2.5 billion cases of human illness a year. For the top 13 zoonoses, the figures were 2.2 million human deaths and 2.4 billion cases of illness.

Agriculture is one of the most dangerous sectors to work in. Of the total estimated 335,000 fatal workplace accidents occurring worldwide each year, some 170,000 involve agricultural workers. Machinery, such as tractors and harvesters, is the biggest cause of injury. The use of pesticides results in around 70,000 poisoning-related deaths each year, as well as at least seven million cases of acute and long-term non fatal illness.

Agriculture remains by far the most important sector where child labourers can be found. Worldwide, 59% of all child labourers in the age group 5-17 years work in agriculture, including farming, fishing, aquaculture, forestry, and livestock. In 2012, this amounted to over 98 million girls and boys.

Antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem. In 2012, there were an estimated 450,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) detected worldwide. An estimated 170,000 deaths were caused by MDR-TB in 2012.

Approximately half of the world's population is at risk of malaria. In 2012, this lead to about 207 million malaria cases and an estimated 627,000 deaths. Malaria mortality rates have fallen by 42% globally since 2000. Most malaria cases and deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa.

Institutions

Civil Society

  • Slow Food NGO which wants to counter the rise of fast food and fast life and the disappear- ance of local food traditions
  • PAN Pesticide Action Network North America works to replace the use of hazardous pesticides with ecological alternatives
  • Center for Food Safety non-profit organisation campaigning against harmful food production technologies
  • Food Insight is dedicated to the mission of communicating science-based information on health, nutrition and food safety
  • Sustainable Table celebrates local sustainable food and educates consumers on food-related issues
  • Keep Antibiotics Working coalition of consumer, environ- mental and agricultural groups, working to reduce the misuse of antibiotics in animal farming

Literature

Graphics

  • UNEP safe drinking waterUNEP safe drinking water
  • UNEP Health EconomyUNEP Health Economy
  • UNEP Malaria Climate ChangeUNEP Malaria Climate Change
  • UNEP Population improved SanitationUNEP Population improved Sanitation
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Donors

Unterstützer von www.weltagrarbericht.de biovision Verlag der Arbeitsgemeinschaft bäuerliche Landwirtschaft e.V. Demeter Greenpeace Forum Umwelt und Entwicklung Eine Welt Stiftung Die Grünen, Europäische Freie Allianz Evangelischer Entwicklungsdienst NABU - Naturschutzbund Deutschland e.V. Misereor Deutsche Gesellschaft für internationale Zusammenarbeit Zukunftsstiftung Landwirtschaft in der GLS Treuhand Zukunftsstiftung Landwirtschaft in der GLS Treuhand
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